Species still present in Valnerina, protected by the Directive Habitat as “ weak species” in Europe and species “ endangered” in Italy.
The current distribution of the Mediterranean trout in Italy is considerably divided for a serial of local extinctions after repopulates of “ready fishing” and insertion of new heterogeneous provenience in all rivers. The consequences of this genetic pollution of the native population caused by the process of the integration with the other species have caused the contraction and in other cases the elimination of the natural population.
A specie to protect
In Umbria the spread of the specie is (Salmo ghigii Rafinesque)is higher in Nera and Chiascio river. Nera river is characterised by the percentage most elevated of presence respect of the other hydrographic basin, thanks to the qualitative characteristics of the rivers in terms of low temperature and concentration of oxygen that is suitable to host populations of trout also with high quantities.
Few years ago the human species has influenced in a substantial manner for the distribution of the species introducing the Salmo trutta L. in order to satisfy the request of the sport fishing. These introductions, during the years, have deeply altered the genetic characteristics of the native trout for phenomena of interne hybridization caused by the cross of two species.
According to the genetic characterization of the Polytechnic University of Marche by the Umbria Region, only three population of Mediterranean trout characterized by an high percentage of genetic integrity, resident in the highest part of the Nera basin. The other analysed populations are partially introspective with the genome of Atlantic trout ( from the REGIONAL REGISTER OF THE GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE AUTOCTONE ANIMALS).
The Fishing Regional Centre of Borgo Cerreto for the conservation of the Mediterranean trout
Umbria is remembered for the recovery and the conservation of native populations of Mediterranean trout in Valnerina, with the fishing experience of Fishing Centre of Terria and Borgo Cerreto.
Now the Mediterranean trout is raised by the Regional Fishing Centre of Borgo Cerreto (PG), where is actuated a recovery of the species. In 2016, a contract is stipulated between the Umbria Region- Regional Council, the Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology of the University of Perugia and Marche – Department of Science of Life and Environment, for the research, selection and production of Mediterranean trout of repopulation.
The centre has an high stock of Mediterranean trout produced by wild reproducers, captured by the Nera rivers selected by genetic base according rigid scientific criteria. This stock is used for the production of new species qualified by the genetic point of view and used for the recovery of the specie.